Showing posts with label Articles. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Articles. Show all posts

Thursday, April 18, 2013

Khwaja Mu’in-ud-din Chisti

Khwaja Mu’in-ud-din Chisti

Khwaja Mu’in-ud-din Chisti was born in 1140 (536 A.H.) in Seistan in Central Asia. He is one of the most prominent Sufis of the Sub-Continent who introduced Chistia order of Sufism to India. The order flourished in India with its branches such as Nizamia and Sabria. He was brought up in Khurasan. His father Khwaja Ghiyas-ud-din Hasan was a very pious and God fearing man. Khwaja was fifteen years old when his father died. He lived on the earnings from a garden and a water mill, inherited from his father. One day he met an ecstatic named Ibrahim Qunduzi who generated great spiritual illumination within him. After a few days Mu’in-ud-din sold his possessions and distributed the whole money amongst the local dervishes. For many years he stayed at Samarqand and Bukhara, then the great centers of learning and became a great scholar of repute. From there he traveled to Harwan, a suburb of Nishapur where under Shaikh Usman Harwani he practiced rigorous doings of austerity for about two and a half years. He visited Baghdad, Tabrez, Balakh and Lahore where he spent forty days of meditation and retreat near the shrine of Sheikh Hujveri (popularly known as Hadrat Data Gunj Bukhsh). During his travel he came into contact with great spiritual personalities of his time such as Ghaus-i-Azam, Sheikh Abu Saeed Tabrezi, Shaikh Zia-ud-din, Sheikh Shahab-ud-din Shurawardi and Sheikh Zia-ud-din Abunajeeb Shurawardi. Qutub ud Din Aibak esteemed Khwaja very high. Later he left Delhi for Ajmer where he preached and spread Islam to the non-Muslims.
It was his human, kind and courteous disposition and piety, which won over the hearts of hundreds of thousands of people. He contacted the masses directly and selflessly loved the poor people. That is why he is well known as Gharib Nawaz (one who is extremely kind to the poor). When Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti arrived on his divine mission in Ajmer around 1190, the news of his arrival spread like wild fire. People mostly non- Muslims began to flock to him in increasing numbers. Whoever came to him received the kindest treatment and blessings. Most of the people were so much inspired by his divine teachings and simplicity that they embraced Islam. Even Ajai pal, the famous magician of Prithvi Raj submitted himself to the divine powers of Khwaja Sahib, abandoned all his magic and became his disciple. Shahabuddin Ghori who had defeated Prithvi Raj in the famous battle of Tarain humbly came to him to be blessed with his grace. Akbar would get down on foot some distance before reaching Ajmer. In 1568 and 1570, he traveled all the distance from Agra to Ajmer on foot for furtherance of some vows.
His noble soul left the mortal body on the 6th of Rajab 633 A.H. (March 16, 1236) at the age of about 97. He was buried in the same cell, which was the center for his divine activities throughout his stay at Ajmer. Today his shrine is visited by the people irrespective of their creed and color from all over the world, and stand side by side to pay homage and offer hymns of praise to this divine soul.

Qutb ud din Aibak

Qutb ud din Aibak

Qutb ud din Aibak
Born to a Central Asia Turk family, Qutb-ud-din Aibak was captured and sold as a slave when he was a child. He was lucky to be purchased by the chief Qazi of Nishapur, who treated him like one of his own sons. Aibak received good education and was trained in the field of archery and horsemanship. However, when the master died, his sons, who were jealous of Aibak, sold him to a slave merchant. Fortune once again favored him and Muhammad Ghuri bought him.
Out of Ghuri’s thousands of slaves, Aibak, because of his character and qualities, became one of his master’s favorite. Aibak steadily rose through the ranks and eventually became a General. Like his owner Ghuri, Aibak performed his greatest deeds while still a subordinate. He was responsible for most of the conquests of Northern India and was appointed as Ghuri’s Viceroy to Delhi. When Ghuri died in 1206, the Turkish Amirs and Generals elected Aibak as the new Sultan. It was he who shifted the capital first from Ghazni to Lahore, and then from Lahore to Delhi, and thus is considered as the first Muslim ruler of South Asia.
Aibak could not rule for long and died in 1210 after falling from a horse while playing polo. He is buried near the Anarkali Bazaar in Lahore, where a new tomb was constructed over his grave around 1970. Though his tenure as a ruler was only four years, and most of them were spend in dealing with the revolts of nobles like Taj-ud-din Ildiz, Nasir-ud-din Qubachah and a few Hindu chiefs, yet he established a firm administrative system. He restored peace and prosperity in the area under him and roads were free from thieves and robbers. He started the construction of Quwaat-al-Islam Mosque at Delhi. He also laid the foundation of the Qutb Minar, which was completed by his successor Iltutmush. Aibak was known as Lakh Baksh because of his generosity. He was also a pious Muslim. Historians have praised his evenhanded justice. He patronized Nizami and Fakh-i-Mudabbir, both of whom dedicated their works to Aibak.
His successors, who ruled India till 1290, were also slaves like him and the dynasty is known as the Slave Dynasty.

Lal Shahbaz Qalandar

Lal Shahbaz Qalandar


The mosque that is built in the hearts of the saints Is the place of worship for all, for God dwells there (Jalaluddin Rumi)
The real name of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar was Syed Muhammad Usman who was born in 1177 AD in Marwand, Iran. His father, Syed Ibrahim Kabiruddin, was a virtuous and pious dervish, and his mother was a high-ranking princess. His ancestors migrated from Iraq and settled down in Meshed, from where they again migrated to Marwand. During the Medieval period, Meshed and other cities of that region were renowned centers of learning and civilization.
Even as a young boy, Shahbaz Qalandar showed strong religious leanings. He learnt the Holy Quran by heart just at age of seven, and at twenty embraced the Qalandar order of Sufism. Qalandar is a type of dervish who is generally dressed in beggars clothes, likes poverty and austerity and has no permanent dwelling. Lal Shahbaz Qalandar wandered throughout Middle East and came to Sind from Baghdad via Dasht-i-Makran. In 1263, he arrived in Multan, which at that time was at the height of glory and splendor. The people of Multan besought him to stay but he continued his journey southward and eventually settled down in Sehwan, then a famous center of learning and popular place of worship for Hindus, in the southern part of Sindh, where he lived in the trunk of a tree on the outskirts of the town. He stayed at Sehwan for six years and during this period he disseminated the light of Islam, providing guidance to thousands of people.
Sehwan is probably the town with the oldest continuous existence in Sind.It rises on the top of a conical hill, and nearby lie the ruins of a huge fort believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great. Some coins of Alexanders time are reported to have been found here. Sehwan was the capital of a Buddhist ruler who was brother of Chandragupta II, the third of the Guptan dynasty in the 4th century AD. From the time of Arab invasion in 712, Sehwan was very important in the history of Sind since it commanded the route from the Upper to the Lower Indus, through which all invaders from either north or south had to pass. And possession of the fort was essential to the success of every campaign.
Lal Shahbaz Qalandar is an overwhelmingly popular patron saint cherished and adored alike by Hindus and Muslims of Sind. He was a great missionary, mystic, scholar, philologist and poet. Several books in Persian and Arabic on philology and poetry are attributed to him. He was Lal (red) because of his red attire, Shahbaz due to his noble and divine spirit that soared like a falcon higher and higher in the boundless heavens and Qalandar since he belonged to Qalandria order of Sufism and was saintly, exalted and intoxicated with love for eternal being of God. The legend goes that the incumbent fakirs in Sewhan sent him a bowl of milk filled to the brim indicating that there was no room for anything more. But surprisingly, he returned the bowl with a beautiful flower floating on the top. This legend spread far and wide by the time of his death in 1274, after living a good span for 97 years.
The shrine around his tomb, built in 1356, gives a dazzling look with its Sindhi kashi tiles, mirror work and two gold-plated doors – one donated by the late Shah of Iran, the other by the late Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The inner sanctum is about 100 yards square with the silver canopied grave in the middle. On one side of the marble floor is a row of about 12 inch high folding wooden stands on which are set copies of Quran for devotees to read. On the other side, beside a bundle of burning agarbattis (joss sticks), are rows of diyas (small oil lamps) lighted by Hindu devotees. The Hindus regarded him as the incarnation of Bhartihari, the saintly brother of King Vikramaditya, who is believed to have worshipped Shiva at the venue where Lal Shahbaz’s shrine is situated with all its grandeur and glory.
Thousands of devotees flock to the tomb while every Thursday their number stands multiplied. Especially at the time of his Urs (death anniversary) being a carnival as well a religious festival and celebrated every year on the 18th day of Shaban, Sehwan springs to life and becomes the focal point of more than half a million pilgrims from all over Pakistan. On each morning of the three day feast, the narrow lanes of Sewhan are packed to capacity as thousands and thousands of pilgrims, fakirs and devotees make their way to the shrine to commune with the saint, offer their tributes and make a wish. Most of the people present garlands and a green chadar (a cloth used to cover a tomb) with Quranic inscriptions in silver or gold threads. Humming of verses, singing and dancing in praise of the saint continues till late at night. A devotional dance known as dhamal, being a frenzied and ecstatic swirl of the head and body, is a special ritual that is performed at the rhythmic beat of the dhole (a big barrel-shaped drum), some of them being of giant size and placed in the courtyard of the shrine. Bells, gongs, cymbals and horns make a thunderous din, and the dervishes, clad in long robes, beads, bracelets and colored head-bands whirl faster and faster in a hypnotic trance, until with a final deafening scream they run wildly through the doors of the shrine to the courtyard beyond.
Not only the people congregating from all over Pakistan but also the tourists and the foreigners are enthralled at this fascinating scene and aspire to enjoy it time and again. Such were the persons who really attained the lofty mystical experience. Through their transcendence, their relation to God is such that in them the Divine personality seems to reflect itself and through them is revealed to his followers, and the grace of God is dispensed to those who invoke God in his name. In Iqbals inspirational poetry we find so many verses about who is Qalandar and what are the attributes of a Qalandar. A few instances are as below:

(Neither the power of crowns and kings nor the might of armies equals the force of a Qalandar)

(I was utterly abashed by this word of the Qalandar: If you bow down before an alien, you will not only be physical whackled but also be deprived of your mind and soul)
It is interesting to note that even the great philosopher-poet Iqbal assumes that he himself is not less than a Qalandar. Therefore he proclaims:




(The world is pleased with my traits of a Qalandar otherwise I know that my verses and my poetry are not so appealing)
In short, Ali Shahbaz Qalandar whose heart was the abode of God dwells in the hearts of the multitudinous people looks supreme and superior to any emperor with all his sovereignty, splendor and stateliness.

Jalal Baba Jalal ud din

Jalal Baba Jalal ud din
A study of life story of Jalal-ud-Din khan of Abbottabad, Hazara, was a strongly felt need in the History of Hazara. He was by any standards a public leader, honest, out spoken and man of great valour. No detailed pioneering work on his life has so for been done. The present work is an humble attempt to highlight some phases of his life.
Jealousy & prejudice have perhaps become the constituents of biography writing. History has recorded the deeds, but only of those who were born in urban areas or in metropolitan cities, such men easily attract public notice and also find biographers and despites are many stalwarts who do not attract public attention, and despite their services to society. They remain unknown. They lie buried under the dust of our Rural Ares awaiting pen of some inquisitive writers.
Jalal-ud-Din Khan was one such hero born in northern hills of Hazara. As he was born and brought-up in poor family, he faced life as a challenge. Hardships of early life turned him into a man of firm faith and determination. He started his career as a common laborer, and rose to the station of a leading transporter of the area. For his social activities the Britishers considered him a fit person to receive their titles. He joined Muslim League in 1937 and league gained strength of popularity in Hazara under his apt leadership. He was the First to renounce his titles in 1946 and was regarded as the “Winner of Referendum” in 1947.
He was the 3rd Interior Minister of Pakistan, President of Pakistan muslim league of Hazara Division. With it he was a federal Minister and had many other Ministereis.
His father Mr. Ghulam Mohammad use to take civil contracts and was so rich that his payment bills use to come in bags on horse back filled with gold/ silver coins. Yes, in his early stage Jalal Baba did do driving taking Britishers from one canttonment to another.
Jalal Baba’s sad demise stirred the people of all walks of life and the social, political and cultural circles expressed their deep grief and regarded this death as the end of an unprecedented era. Rich tributes were paid to his gigantic personality. Emminent personalities appreciated Baba’s relentless efforts for glorifying the Muslim cause and setting the example of sacrifice patience dedication and devotion.
The leaders who had worked with him in the Pakistan Movement deeply mourned his death. These included Mr. Yousaf Khattak, Fida Mohammad Khan Late Arbab Sikander Khan Khalil, Sabir Ilahi Shakir, Mian Mohammad Iqbal, Akhwan Zada Behrwar Saeed and many other Raja Sikandar Zaman paid rich tributes to the Baba, and in his condolence message he declared that the Hazar Muslim League was personified in Jalal Baba as the Quaid-i-Azam had personified the All India Muslim League. He added that baba’s sacrifices for the establishment of Pakistan were unforgettable and would continue to inspire the future generation for a long time to come.
General Zia expressed his sentiments of grief the demise of Jalal Baba. In a condolence message sent to his on General Zia eulogized Baba’s role in the Pakistan Movement. He said that the Baba had also devoted all his energies for the progress and prosperity of the country and the whole record of his life bore testimony to this fact.
Governor Fazal Haq of NWFP was also grieved at the incident. He expressed his shock in his condolence message. Paying tributes to the Baba he maintained that the Baba was a popular leader and a devoted soldier of Quaid-i-Azam. His selfless efforts and bold and courageous struggle brought him high and honourable position. The Baba was a freedom fighter imbued with the spirit of public service and will be remembered as an established leader for ever. His death is a national loss.

Early Life, and Traits of Jalal Baba

Mohammad Jalal-ud-din khan, popularly known as Jalal Baba, was born in March 1903, at village upper Malik Pura, in the Municipality of Abbottabad, the tenth of the twelve children of his parents. His father sheikh Ghulam Mohammad was a Block smith who had migrated to this part of undivided India in the band or Mujahedeen under the banner of Hazarat Sayed Ahmed Brahlvi before the war of independence 1857.
Jalal-ud-din was brought up in a lower middle class family of Abbottabad. Before matriculation he left school in 1919, and joined the “Hijrat Movement” and left for Kabul. But his father brought him back from Landi-Kotal when the movement was called off: consequently he could not carry on his further education.
There are two versions as to why he was called by the name of Jalal Baba” one, that while working with a Hindu Bania he was supposed to have him by the name f jalal Baba. The other commonly held view is that he had grown a long beard at n early age. As such his friends called him by the name of Jalal Baba.
Jala Baba , though otherwise an intelligent student, was weak in Mathematics and are secured a Zero Mark, as big as the page of his exercise book. He his been a sportsman ever since he was ten. He took keen interest in sports and devoted much of his time to playing gamed even at the cost of his studies at school. He was a promising foot-baller, but also played Tennis, hockey and Cricket. His love for sports and his sportman spirit is evident from the fact that having tendered his resignation from Minster ship in 1953. He went straight to the Tennis Court, and for minutes he layed and enjoyed the game as usual. Sports, however. Gave him knee. And waist injuries.
The Hazara Frontier Sports Club flourished under his president ship for twelve years. He was an outstanding player of the Hazara football team which was next to the team of Calcutta Mohammadan Sporting Club. He also patronized various other literary and sports organizations. But finally he had to abandon the sports activities after a knee injury.
Having given up his education he was employed by his father to insist him at the smithy shop. Here he earned his pocket money at the rate of ten strokes of the heavy sledge hammer per two Anna piece.
Jalal Baba worked and became a professional driver, plying an old pedaled ford car, as taxi between Havelian and Kakul and from Abbottabad to Srinagar.
As a driver, he had three accidents but every time he and his passengers escaped almost miraculously. It is interesting to note that the deriving license he had obtained at that time. Is still available in his record. In the taxi business he was successful beyond his wildest dreams. His broken English and the glamour of sports took him into the Cantonment poly of transport for the British officers. At time his earning mounted to rupees three hundred per day.
Leadership in the transport business, his education, mare though it was from the present day standard, and his reputation as a sportsman, gave him a status in society.
He had a taste for must but not to the extent of a craze. A forbearing father, staunch and a plous Muslim he started saying prayer ever since he was four or five and never missed a single prayer. As an evidence of this truth one might cite that when be was entrusted with the portfolio of Interior Minister in 1958, he bowed down his head before god in thanks giving in his office. He learnt a considerable portion of the Holy Quran with translation. He learnt a considerable portion of the Holy Quran with translation. He was heard reciting repeatedly “Sura-e-Jin” from the Holy Quran when he was breathing his last.
He never refused a beggar and had sympathy for the needy the poor and children. In the morning, while driving his ford car from home to his office, he used to pick up pedestrian students, thus making them reach their destination conveniently. A tireless, hard working.Well built and plain man, he led a simple life and wore simple dress. He was inspired by Justice Sajjad Ahmad Jan and often said. “he is the only friend of mine”
His favorite diet was rice, meat, eggs and ice cream. He liked tea and was a chain smoker but gave up smoking 18 years before his death. Once it was Ramadhan that he pledged not to smoke and he never smoked again. Jalal Baba was a man of a equable temperament, diligent and industrious, he was a typical self made man. Started his career as a common labourer and rose to the status of a Minister. He was undaunted, outspoken and a good orator. He did not hesitate to voice his disagreement while meeting with Ghulam Mohammad the then Governor General and was critical of Government’s pro-American policy.
Jalal Baba had great liking for Delhi, Lahore and extensively toured almost all the Muslim monuments and Holy Shrines. He liked participating in religious ceremonies and discussions. He appreciated and deliberated over Islamic Books. He learnt a lot from Mufti Al-Husseini of Islamic Organization and Jamal Abdul Nasir of Egypt for the unity of Islamic World. It is said tat on every Friday after Juma Prayer most of the prominent Ulema of the Abbottabad city used to visit Jalal Baba’s office and had free Chat. Jalal Baba relished sitting in such gatherings.
Sympathetic and tender hearted for poor orphans, he voluntarily took upon himself responsibility to bring up even orphan children and looked after them till they were able to earn their livelihood. He wished his sons to become doctors but never allowed them to take advantage of his of file official position. The late I.G.P of NWFP Farid Khan advised his sons to join the civil services of the province. But Jalal Baba, a Minister at that time, refused to use his influence for getting his sons into Government Service. When Jalal Baba was holding the portfolio of a Central Minister, his eldest son was drawing a paltry salary of Rs.150 P.M.

His SOCIO – Religious Activities

Jalal Baba had always been a public man. Even when he was a Minister, his office and residence always used to be packed with people soliciting one favour or another. Although he had built up a flourishing business as a transporter of Hazara, yet he never shirked participating in Social and public welfare activities. He took keen interest in solving the problems and difficulties of the poor masses.
His fame and name and reputation as a social worker received a further fillip when he was appointed a member of the Abbottabad Municipal Committee in 1932. Despite the fact that he was a nominated member, he did a lot for the improvement of civic amenities of the city and for the welfare of the Citizens. From 1930 to 1952 Jalal Baba held the Chair of the President of “Anjuman-i-Islamia Hazara”. The school which was running in Abbottabad was later on taken over by the government and known as Government High School No.2. Abbottabad. There was a time when Islamia High School was the only educational institution of Hazara and people from far and wide would come to study here.
The Britishers governed the undivided India with a well planned and properly chalked out policy. Whenever they noticed some one emerging as a potential leader of the masses, they would woo him with royal favour like titles and “Sannads”.the same was case Jalal Baba. The British government was not slow to realize that here was a man coming from the lower middle class of society who was attaining to ever rising heights of popularity through his social activities, and who could be a source of strength to the Government or a potent danger, depending on which way loyalties lay.
In fact the Government was highly impressed by the qualities of leadership displayed by Jalal Baba. Hence in order to win his support i allegiance the viceroy of India conferred upon him, first the title Khan Sahib, then after some time that of Khan Bahadur. These were highly coveted titles and regarded as marks of great distinction and pride. But Jalal Baba never prided himself as being a British titleholder. En the occasion demanded, he was the first to renounce his titles.
On July 5, 1935 a fire broke out in Abbottabad city. Both Jamia Masjid and Islamia High School were burnt down to ashes. Jalal Baba in the capacity of the President of Anjuman-i-Islmia lost no time and under took to reconstruct these ruins. His companions also fully collaborated with him and finally under his supervision Jamia Masjid, main bazaar and Islamia High School Abbottabad were reconstructed.
In 1937 Jalal Baba joined the Muslim League. In his transport business he had already established his monopoly. In view of his integrity in the field of business on September 29, 1946 the provincial Chamber of commerce n its meetings appointed Jalal Baba famous transport Contractor of Hazara, as member of the working committee NWFP Muslim Chamber of Commerce. He remained in the committee till the partition was declared.
“I write to convey to you my sincere appreciations of the services you have rendered to the Municipality and to the public during your tenure of office. From all quarters I have heard hooting but praise of your work and from personal knowledge. I know that you have greatly improved the sanitation and lighting of the Municipal area and in all mater Pertaining to public welfare you have enjoyed to a very marked degree the confidence of his vast majority of the citizens of Abbottabad. He concluded the letter the regrets on losing the services of the Jalal Baba, but was hopeful for he availability of his valuable advices in all matters of public interest. i.e. wished Jalal Baba to come forward in public spirited manner to offer is services when occasion arose.
The Central finance Committee of the Museum Association of Pakistan in a meeting held at Karachi in April 1951 elected Jalal Baba, as a member of the Regional Sub-Committees set up for the North West Frontier Province and the Frontier States. Jalal Baba endeavored to bring good name to the Associations.
This was the time when Jalal Baba’s fame had crossed the frontiers of the Province and he was known to all, almost all over the country for his social activities.
After partition from June 17, 1948 to march 31, 1950, he held the office of the Honorary district Custodian of the Non-Muslim Property. In 1950, he was again appointed as Administrator of Abbottabad Municipal Committee.
Jalal Baba was a staunch Muslim and had unbounded sentiments for Islam. Quite often he spoke for the implementation of Islamic measures the society, and for the unity of Islamic world. In June 1950 keeping , in view his services and inclination towards Islam he was elected as member for the Working committee of NWFP, of Moatamir – Islami.
The Acquisition of land for Eid congregational prayer (Eid Gah) and Kabristan-i-Karbala (Karbala Graveyard) at Abbottabad, reconstruction of Jamia Masjid and Islamia High School are some of the note able achievements of Jalal Baba for the citizens of Abbottabad, it is said that the late thirties the Hindu leaders of Abbottabad had planned to occupy these two grounds to celebrate their religious festivals. But before they could get their ends Jalal Baba with the help of the masses occupied these grounds for the Muslims of Hazara.
The Editor of the weekly “ Jamhoor”, Abbottabad, who has been a close friend of Jalal Baba cherishes the sweet memory of the Baba, Whenever Iftar Parties of Ramazan are mentioned, he says, he is reminded of Jalal Baba. He spent all his hardened wealth on hospitality and politics. His Dastarkhawan (table) was particularly lavish and open for all. Even of the time when it used to be the hub of Hazara politics Station. Reminds people of the time when it used to be the hub of Hazara politics, from early in the morning till late in the evening visitors would come and go. He used o spend twelve, to fourteen hours in this office, so that no visitor would became a centre of political activity. In this office he used to entertain guests with cakes, pastries and tea throughout the day. There was no discrimination between his visitors. His visitors included workers, the poor the rich and the leaders,. All these would be sitting on the Sofa Sets in his office, talking informally, besides the usual hospitality, special Iftar parties used to be given during the entire month of Ramazan, one Kind of Iftar parties would be open for all. They would be held in the lawn on the northern side of his office which is still there. A long table would be laid there with thirty or forty chairs around.
Jalal Bab would be sitting on the table at Iftar surrounded by the people not specially invited but people who would just drop in for Iftar with Jalal Baba. This would be a simple but by no means a scant Iftar. The fare at party would include squashes, fruits, kabas, pikora and many kinds of sweets. Besides this Common Iftar there used to be held on or two special Iftar parties every week. Two or three parties would be thrown to the high ups of various departments, a party or two for the lower employees of these departments and similarly a party or two would be also given to the workers. Special parties were also given to political leaders. Businessmen, Newsmen and even barbers. Jalal Baba was so interested in these Iftaries, hat he would personally supervise the arrangement. The blast of gunpowder from his office was the signal for Iftari not only in the city of Abbottabad but the villages around.
Now-a-days these blasts take place in three or four different places the city but in his time, his was the only blast for the whole city. At the approach of Ramazan he would place orders for special shells at a village near Haripur. These powerful shells would resound far and wide.
A veteran Journalist, Ghulam Jan Khan, recalls that when-he-shifted the office of his weekly Jamhoor from Haripur to Abbottabad in 1950, the Ramdan would fall in summer. He remembers having attended the usual Iftaries the Jalal Baba along with a number of Muslim League workers. After the “Taraveh” prayer at night they would reassemble at his office Qawa and light refreshment which would go on till late in the night There are still a number of well to do people in Abbottabad and they also give parties during the Ramazan. But these parties are confined to their friends or inferential people in offices, and they can not compare with the Iftar Parties Jalal Bab. “I do not think he will be surpassed in this respect. Jalal Baba is no more among us but the memory of his generosity and the fame of his Iftar Parties linger on. And for these he will be remembered for a long time to come” says Tahirkheli.

Jalal Baba in Polities

Jalal Baba has had the predilection for politics since 1919, when he left school to go to Kabul as a Muhajir. But politics is an expensive game and financially he was not so stable as to indulge in politics.
It was not before late thirties that Jalal Baba had established himself a recognized businessman and a social worker of Hazara. Now he could afford to enter the field of politics. Jalal Baba joined the Muslim League in 1937, at Abbottabad in the first public meeting held in the Company Bagh, while Chaudhary Khaliq-uz-Zaman accompanied by K.B. Saadullah Khan was presiding the meeting.
K. B. Jalal Baba now an eminent figure in the provincial political circles, raised his voice at the most crucial juncture. The reorganization of the Muslim League resulted in a glorious revolution in the political ranks of Indians. Of course the seeds of the Hazara Muslim League were sown by Mian Naruddin and Mir Waliullah in 1937, but the task of nourishing it was mainly shouldered by Jalal-ud-Din Khan, who after joining the organization acquired the Chrisma of the league’s Leadership in Hazara.
In 1939 K.B. Jalal Baba Baba was elected as the president of the Hazara District Muslim League. He held the office as unopposed president for fourteen years. The Hazara Muslim League acquired great strength and popularity under his apt leadership. He had also been the vice-president of the Provincial Muslim League and a member of the All-India Muslim League Council.
The organizational frame work of the Hazara Muslim League was set up in a such a fashion that its. The Secretary General of the Provincial Muslim League replied saying. “I was very glad to know that M. Jalal-ud-din Khan M.L.A. is financing the district Muslim league. Please. In future, do let the provincial office know about the activities of our leader in your district. As regards funds, the provincial Muslim League is almost Bank-rupt.’
At the moment when British Government conferred titles on Jalal Baba the Muslim league was in the naseent stages of taking roots in the N.W.F.P Province. In view of his personal influence in his personal influence in his native district the Muslim League leaders assigned Jalal Baba the task of its organization. Although the Muslim Jeague in Hazara had been founded much earlier, yet zeal and dedication for the league as he had for his business. He received support and co-operation from the middle and lower middle class people who comprised the majority, as he himself had belonged them, people gathered around him and turned his transport office into a political one. The Muslim League workers. From all over Hazara, used to visit him in order to receive his directives on organizational matters.
The well knitted and skillfully fabricated branches of the Hazara Muslim League mirrored the efficiency of Jalal Baba. In August 1951, Khan Qayum Khan the then, Chief Minister and President of the Provincial Muslim League, made an extensive tour of Hazara district. After the tour concluded, he sent a letter of appreciation to Jalal Baba which is quoted as.
“This is to place on record the fact that all the branches of the Muslim league in Hazara, Primary Halqa and district have co-operated wonderfully in making this tour successful. The credit for all this goes to you and your colleagues, in the district Muslim League for putting it on strong foundations in your district.” He went on to say with full confidence that the Muslim League was all in all in this district and no other organization counted and he expressed his resolve to bring the league organizations in other districts to the same level.
The future of any other political party in Hazara, remained bleak due to the influence of K.B. Jalal Baba. He was a Muslim Leaguer first and last. It is an undeniable fact, that the Hazarites. Who are at present divided, and have lost their prestige and political awareness, were united under the green flag of the Muslim League. The courageous leadership of Jalal Baba, had brought together, the people with divergent and conflicting views and representing different castes such as Dhond, Tanoli Pathan, Syed, Awan, Swati and Tareen etc. he played a vital role in unifying these scattered groups into one. Consequently the Hazara Muslim League was made a stone citadel and a strong hold providing shelter to the Muslim.
The Quaid-i-Azam was his ideal of a leader and he had great love affection and respect for the Qauid. When the Quaid-i-Azam under took a visit to Peshawar, he was warmly welcomed by a memoth gathering. Jalal baba leading a procession of thousand of Muslim League workers form Hazara reached Peshawar. Sitting on the horse back with sword in his hand Jalal Baba was escorting the Quaid’s car. He was followed by a band of national Guards. Musical band of National Guards from Hazara also participated in this historical procession. The musicians were playing the tunes of:
When Jalal Baba Raised the flag of the Muslim League, it was the time when doing such a thing was like raising a flag of treason. The congress was so strong all around that none dared take name of the Muslim League. Such a person was called not only a communalist but was branded as a “Today “ and a “Stooge” of the British. They were derided for not only being unpatriotic but sown right parochialists and selfish. Burning the Torch of the Muslim League in the face of such a tempestuous opposition and hatred was a herculean task. But Jalal Baba never cared for any opposition and proved to all the Muslims of not only Sarhad but the entire India that an selfless leader could fight against any odds and conquer all obstacles and achieve his goal at last.
Jalal Baba put life and soul into the body of the Hazara Muslim League. He did not hesitate from any sacrifice for it. It was the result of his tireless efforts that even before the partition the Muslim League had become a force to reckon with. The people started flocking into its fold. The curtains of opposition and misunderstanding began to left, and cracks started to appear in the ranks of the Congress. New Leaders came forward to carry own the Mission of the Muslim League. There was enormous increase in its workers and the widespread sympathizers among the masses.

The Provincial Elections of 1946

In May, 1945, the second world war came to an end an the allies stood victorious. In Britain the labour party had returned to power after the general elections. New political developments were expected to take place in the changed circumstances. The labour party of England was keen to find the solution of the Indian problems as early as possible. Therefore as soon as it assumed power Lord Wavel the then Viceroy went to England with …………………………………..in regard with the Indian Problem to be discussed with the Cabinet Members. On his return he announced the holding of general Elections to the central and provincial Assemblies in the coming winter. After these elections the majority parties would constitute ministries in the provinces. The election for the provincial Assemblies were held in early 1946, except in the North West Frontier province.
These elections had posed a challenge to the Muslim League to substantiate its claim that the Muslim league was the sole representative organization of the Muslim Community, The high command of the Muslim League chalked out a policy and a program. Organizers were sent to different provinces to accelerate the election campaign.
On June 18, 1945 Qazi Mohammad Isa, the organizer of the Muslim League visited Peshawar. On June 26, 1945, he in connection with the organization of the Muslim League, appointed seven Ad- Hoe committees. An advisory committee was also constituted. Qazi Isa was its Chairman and Mian Zia–ud-Din the Convener. The committee consisted of ten member from the province Jalal Baba was a member of this committee from district Hazara. He was also appointed as President of Ad-Hoe committee set up from Hazara.
On Oct. 11, 45 the Central parliamentary Board of the Muslim League set up three parliamentary Boards namely selections Board, Election Board & NWFP. The task of the Board was nominations of candidates for Frontier Assembly. He was also selected as member of the NWFP. Election Board, which comprised of fifteen members and its duty was make arrangements for the forthcoming provincial Elections.

A Ticket Contoversy

In fact, in the North West Frontier Province, the Congress had come put as a majority party after the 1945-46 elections. The reason for the failure of the Muslim League in the said elections was mainly due to the incompetent and unqualified candidates nominated by the provincial selection Board.
In the Hazara district, for each constituency about five to six candidates were aspiring for the Muslim League ticket. The vested interests had jeopardized ten victory of the Muslim League in Hazara , but Jalal Baba rose to the occasion and set out along with sixty National Guards on district wide election tour. He visited Tehsil Manshera, addressed public meetings at Shinkiari, Pakhli and Manshera. On his appeal the masses set aside their differences and pledged to unitedly fight against the Congress from the Muslim League plat form.
On Nov. 22, 1945 the Provincial selection Board issued party tickets for different constituencies in the NWFP, whereby Sardar Bahadar Khan the speaker of the then Frontier Assembly, was denied the ticket for Haripur central Muslim Rural constituency, Hazara. He filed an appeal to the Chairman Central Parliamentary Board .All India Muslim League, challenging the decision. The speaker in his appeal charged the selection Board with favoritism, and argued that the real reason for which the appellant had been denied party clique in the selection Board was cherishing fondly. This ambition was openly discussed by the member of the clique in the presence of K.B. Jalal–ud-Din Khan.
The appellant Sardar Khan was deeply concerned for the league ticket. Realizing the gravity of the situation, he started seeking support of Jalal Baba, And he was sure that matter could only be resolved through his good offices. Having discussed the issue with Liaquat Ali Khan and Qazi Mohammad Isa, the organizer of the Muslim League, Sardar Bahadur Khan wrote from Delhi a letter to Jalal Baba, in which he said: “If God willing with your help I shall be able to pull through”.
Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan Chairman of Central Parliamentary Board, had told the appellant in Delhi, that he would discuss the issue with Jalal-ud- Din Khan the President of the Hazara Muslim League, during his visit of NWFP. The appellant in another letter to Jalal Baba went on to say that only through his efforts and sureties if given to Nawabzada sahib, would be given the ticket. He regarded the issue if his nomination as a League Candidate as of vital importance for him.
In December, 1945 Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan in order to apprise himself of the situation visited North West Frontier Province and heard the case at Peshawar. But, before making any decision he wanted to seek Jalal Baba’s concurrence. So he sent a telegram to Jalal Baba asking him to discuss the matter with him at Taxila railway station , on his way back from Peshawar to Lahore. After a very brief conference at the station with jalal baba , Nawabzada sahib was convinced to set aside the decision of the Provincial Selection Board and thus the party ticket was issued to Sardar Bahadur Khan.
The clique of the NWFP selection Board though somewhat unhappy with the decision of the High Command , had to obey. It is worth mentioning that during the Pakistan Movement Jalal Baba wrote several pamphlets for the masses to create political awakening among them. IN 1945 when the Muslim League decided to participate in the elections, Jalal Baba in the capacity of the President of Hazara Muslim League published and circulated This pamphlet contained unanimous verdict(fatwa) of the ulema of the united India. In the Fatwa it was declared that the All India Muslims. Hence they urged the Muslim to support only the Muslim League. The elections to the provincial Assembly were held in early 1946. The North West Frontier Province, at that time comprised of six Districts.
Namely Bannu D.I. Khan , Hazara, Kohat, Mardan and Peshawar. The Muslim League in NWFP was to contest 38 Muslim Constituencies. The members of the provincial Election Board, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Khan Qayum, Mian Jaffar shah and M.R. Kayani were asked to campaign for the elections of 27 seats, while remaining 11 seats were left for Jalal Baba to take care of. It is now a fact of history that when elections concluded, the Hazara Muslim League captured 10 out of 11 seats, which was entirely due to Jalal Baba’s tireless efforts, while on the other hand the League could bag only 7 seats from the rest of the province. Thus congress had a clear Majority.

Selection of Opposition Leader

In North West Frontier province the congress had a clear majority on hours of 40, so it formed the ministry with Dr. Khan sahib as the Chief Minister. The 1946 elections proved a test for the integrity of the Muslim League in NWFP. Earlier it has received a severe setback due to the unwise decision of the selection Board. Now it was the question as to who should be the leader of opposition. As the Muslim League was to sit in the opposition. They had to select a leader of opposition. There were sharp difference of opinion among the Muslim League members on this issue.
A member of Legislative Assembly from Hazara District, without consulting Jalal Baba the President of the District Muslim League persuaded and instigated Nawab sir Mohammad Akbar Khan to contest for the post of opposition Leader so as to thwart Jalal Baba’s efforts to get Khan Qayum as the opposition Leader. Jalal Baba speeded up his activities and called on Nawab Sahib for an exchange of views. The Nawab Sahib was persuaded to the meeting of the elected Muslim League Khan Qayum was unanimously selected as the leader of opposition in the provincial Assembly.

N.W.F.P in the Grip of Political Dual

It was quite unfortunate, that the Muslim League could not flourish in NWFP due to lack of sincere leader ship and personal rivalries of the so called leaders. In the April of 1951 Peshawar was in the grip of a political dual between Khan Ibrahim Khan of Jhagra and Khan Abdul Qayum Khan, for the presidentship of the provincial Muslim League.
Though personal rivalries in the ranks of the All- India Muslim League had been there even before partition, but after the establishment of Pakistan the scramble for power made the cracks more pronounced. So the Muslim league in NWFP could not remain an exception. It also underwent a process of disintegration. Jalal Baba is quoted to have said that a conspiracy was hatched at a high level, by a few members of anti-Qayum group, telling nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan that Khan Qayum was not as capable a person as he was reputed to have been, and that he had committed many serious mistakes, so Liaquat Ali Khan should make an announcement that whoever would be elected the president of the Muslim League would be the Chief Minister of the Frontier Province. In fact it was for this reason that Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan had become deadly against Khan Qayum and was on no account ready to allow him to take part in the election.
The elections were to be held on April 29, 1951, there were two Presidential candidates for the Frontier Muslim League, one was Khan Qayum, supported by Jalal Baba, and the other Khan Ibrahim Khan of Jhangra. The latter was supported by Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif and Mr. Yousaf Khattak.
When Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan visited Peshawar in April 1951, Presidents of all the six districts Muslim League of NWF were asked to meet him before elections. On the Prescribed date presidents of the six districts Muslim League called on Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan the whole situation and got him convinced to allow Mr. Khan Qayum to participate in the forthcoming elections.
The voting strength of the Hazara District Muslim League was 32 councillors, a deputation of dissidants led by Mtr. Yousaf Khattak along with the Khan of Jhagra, the candidate, came to Jalal Baba and wanted all these solid votes of his district be used against Khan Qayum. They offered him big cash and a written “Halaf Nama” pledging that the Khan of Ghagra would hold the office of the Chief Minister for one year only. The offer was flatly turned down by Jalal Baba.
On the following morning the April 29, 1951 while Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan wa in the Chair, Jalal Baba, the president of the Hazara Muslim Lreague proposed the name of Abdul Qayum Khan while Khan Ibrahim Khan was proposed by Mr. Yousaf Khan Khattak. Votes were counted openly by Mr. Sadique Ali, the personal Secretary to Liaquat Ali Khan and the result was announced in favour of Mr. Khan Qayum, with 66 vs 48.
After the votes were counted and the result declared, Khan Qayum was the firswt to shout “Jalal Baba Zinda Bad”. It was with the support of Jalal Baba and through the solid votes of his group that Khan Qayum had become the President of the Provincial Muslim League and Consequently the Chief Minister of the Frontier Province.

Jalal-Ud-Din Khan Member of Legislative Assembly

Jalal-ud-Din Khan was a zealus social worker, a combodiment of Patriotic sentiments though not without a parochial touch. In 1946 he was elected as a member of the NWFP legislative Assembly and since then he always criticized and opposed moves which went against the interests of the Muslim Community. During the year 1946, when the Congress Ministry was in office under the Chief Minister-ship of Dr. Khan Sahib in NWFP, he played a pivotal role in redressing the grievances specially of people of Hazara.
In Feb. 1947 wholesale transfer of Hazarawals police Officials was carried out. This vindictive action of the Congress Ministry annoyed Jalal-ud-Din Khan. He in the capacity of an M.L.A. moved a resolution in the Assembly and asked the Chief Minister to give reason for the wholesale transfers. He asked whether it was feasible for him to transfer the whole population of Hazara to some other district. He further asked the Chief Minster to move the Government of Pakistan to reamulgamate Hazara with the Punjab, if he was so much against the “Hazarawals”.
The Chief Minister Dr. KJhan Sahib visited “Rajoia” Abbottabad, in the 1st week of February, 1947. The residents of the area did not let him hold a public meeting. He turned against them and imposed a collective fine of Rs. 5,000.00 upon them. Jalal Baba considered the decision based on malafides, moved a resolution in the Assembly asking him how he took the matter as a personal insult, despite the fact that majority of the population was pathans.
Being a staunch Muslim and for his religious zeal he was always conscious of his obligations. On Jan. 29, 1947 he moved some resolutions in the legislative Assembly asking for a ban on the Book Called “Satyarath Parkash” which contained objectionable material, demanded for immediate repeal of frontier Crime Regulation in NWFP and for urgent arrangements for imparting compulsory religious instructions to the Muslim students in all schools and colleges in NWFP Province.
Jalal Baba as M.L.A. was big hurdle for the Congress Ministry in the way fulfilling her nefarious designs in NWFP. In 1946 about forty Hindus embraced Islam in Tehsil Abbottabad. Some of them were forced to be reconverted to Hinduism and some were thrown behind the bars by the Congress Government, although they had embraced Islam voluntarily. This nasty action compelled Jalal Baba to move a strong resolution in the Assembly against the action.
In 1946 some communal riots took place in Hazara. Many innocent Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims were arrested and collective fines were levied on certain villages in the Hazara Duistrict. The Chief Minister issued a statement that these disturbances were not communal. In a resolution Jalal Baba asked Dr. Khan Sahib if they were not then the evacuation of the non-Muslims from Hazara District was merely a ruse organized and staged by the Congress Agents with a view to disgrace Hazara, which he regarded as a strong Bastion of Pakistan. He further rejected the claim of the Congress Government to be the representative of the people of the Province on the ground that it had issued all the trade licenses to the Non-Muslims only.
Had Jala Baba not been so zealous an advocate of the poor masses of Hazara they might been harassed by the Congress Government on a much larger scale.
When in August 1947 Pakistan came into existence as a sovereign Islamic State, Jalal Baba availed himself of the opportunity and moved a resolution in the Legislative Assembly demanding a complete ban on the use of liquor, and that the names of the officials who were addicted to drinking be announced and secret inquiries be carried out against them.
He brought into the notice of the Chief Minister NWFP the absence of schooling facilities for Sherewn and Tanawal, District Hazara, and the delay in providing “Pucka” road from Abbottabad to Sherwan which had been sanctioned in August 1947.
When the people of Hazara started participating in the Kashmir Jehad in 1947–48, many of them had been challanned and sentenced for keeping unlicensed arms, their arms were also forfeited to the Pakistan Government.
He moved a strong resolution asking the Government that neither were the Mujahdeen in the paid service of this district nor had it banned their participation in Jehad so why should they be penalized by the Government.
It was the year 1949 that Governmetn was publicizing the harmful effects and abuses of Ashish, Opium and heroin on cinema slides. But at the same time licences were being issued for trafficking in such fatal drugs. Jalal Baba raised objection in the assembly and condemned this double edged policy of the Government.

Tenat S Issue

Tenants and farmers have always been the most victimized section of our society. The Landlords in the Punjab, the Waderas in Sindh, Sandemans and the Sardars in Baluchistan and the Khans and Nawabs in the Frontiers province, have been exploiting them before and after the partition of the sub-continent. The yoke of feudalism is still hanging round their necks, and it could be only shaken off by bringing about radical changes in the very system.
A similar situation was prevailing in Hazara District of the Frontier Province at that time. Ruthless exploitation of the tenants of Phulra State Umb Darband and Kaghan Valley drew the attention of Jalal Baba, the President of the Haza District Muslim League and member of the Legislative Assembly.
In March , 1951, the Tehsildar of Oghi, accompanied by a police contingent plundered houses of tenants of Phulra State, for recovery of Khan’s Alleged dues, humiliatingly, Jalal Baba was rudely shocked by this vicious and unjust action. On March 21, 1951, he in the capacity of the vice-President of the Provincial Muslim League, sent a telegraph to the Governor, the Chief Minister NWFP, and Deputy Commissioner Hazara for intervention to redress the grievances of the tenants.
In connection with the same issue, a meeting of the Provincial Muslim League Council was held on April 29, 1951. Jalal Baba moved a resolution that the meeting desired to draw the attention of the provincial Government towards the fact that full proprietory rights had not yet been given to the tenants by the Government therefore it should take immediate measures in this connection in order to satisfy the people. It further resolved that arrangements be made to retransfer their old rights to such ejected agriculturists who had been ejected after they had paid up all revenues to the landlords, otherwise the Government should open camps and feed them to keep them alive.
To ameliorate the situation and appease the tenants, the working committee of the Provincial Muslim League in its meeting, held on June, 18, 1951, set up a sub-committee, to furnish her report to the Government till August 1, 1951. Jalal Baba was appointed as the conveyor of this Committee.
The tenants of the Kaghan Valley had also been evicted by their Landlords. But it was through the tireless efforts of Jalal Baba that they got their proprietory rights. They highly praised the struggle of Jalal Baba and sent him letters of Admirations, Paying rich tributes for his services.

His Role in the Pakistan Movement

The Pakistan movement was the culmination of the aspirations of millions of Muslims living in the sub-continent, for the achievements which people from all walks of life contributed directly or indirectly. Generally the pages of history are reserved for a particular set who stand out among the common run and steal the limelight, although the people belonging to the middle and lower middle classes perform no less remarkable deeds. The Baba’s name is included among the second class category but due to his sheer devotion, since efforts, spirit of sacrifice and love for Islam, he deserved to be classed with the front rank leaders. Jalal Baba occupies a prominent position among Quaid-i-Azam’s companions who offered him selfless, honest support and remained loyal to him till the end in the Pakistan movement.
There were numerous other Muslim Leaguers in Hazara but Jalal Baba stood head and shoulders above them all. The masses loved and respected him from the core of their hearts. There was time when the Baba was adored as an ideal hero of the people. Even when was holding a position of power and authority he never kept himself aloof from the masses. He used to utter the following words while addressing rallies: “Friends! Jalal is & poor man and is son of a Blacksmith. He will live with the poor and would die for them.
Jalal Baba was a staunch suppo0rter of the Pakistan movement; He had achieved a unique position in the politics of the Frontier Province. Literally speaking Hazara Muslim League and Jalal Baba were the two sides of the same coin. While Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif had appeared from the northern hills, Ibrahim Khan o fJhagra was on the southern front accompanied by Yousaf Khattak, Habibullah Khan and the Late Pir Sahib Zakori Sharif, the Baba was fighting the battle of Pakistan on the eastern from (Hazara). He possessed a stout physique and was amazingly industrious and tireless. At one moment he was seen addressing a public meeting in Abbottabd, the next hour he would be seen on the stage at Mansehra, reaching Havelian Sara-i-Saleha and Haripur the next day.
He was remarkabley active and hard working. He boldly faced the ridicule and criticism of his political rivals. His aristocratic political opponents jeered at him as the son of a black-smith while the educated ones among them sneered at him as ignorant and illiterate. The Baba paid no heed to this uncharitable attitude and never flinched in his devotion to the cause of the Pakistan Movement.
The spell of the Congress was so potent that whosoever talked of the Muslim League was ridiculed and booed at. The leaguers were labeled as “toadies” of British and were characterized as narrow minded, sectarians and people without imagination. The wave of such criticism was ever on the increase. It was not an easy task to keep the candle of the cause of Pakistan burning in the fact of such a storm of opposition blowing all round. But Jalal Baba proved himself a bulwark against all the hostilities. He faced all hardships with determination and courage and thus revealed to the Indian Muslims that sincerity of purpose and devotion to a just cause surmount all difficulties and ultimately lead to the desired goal.
The history of the sub-continent would remain incomplete without reference to the services rendered by Jalal Baba. He was the raison dieter of the movement launched for Pakistan. His contributions and achievement will long be remembered. He worked for the establishment of Pakistan in the capacity of President and Vice President of the District and Provincial Muslim League respectively.
Jalal Baba was the first to initiate the Direct Action in the Battle of Pakistan by moving a resolution in the All-India Muslim League meeting in July 1946, recommending the reunification of titles, conferred by the British Government.
Again when in July 1947, the Muslim League launched the civil disobedience movement, the Baba was the first to court arrest from Hazara followed by the others in such a large numbers that the Jails were filled to capacity with the political internees. He was released only after the declaration of independence and the establishment of Pakistan.

Reunification of British Titles

In the United India the Muslim League was the sole and acknowledged representative of entire Muslim community in their struggle for a separate homeland in the sub-continent. For the achievement of their objective the Muslims had to content against heavy odds. The Hindus were set against the demand of the Muslims. The British also looked upon them with suspicion and mistrusts. But they were clever people and in order to bridge gulf between the rulers and the ruled and to win the support and allegiance of Muslims they conferred titles, Medals, Sanads, and Estates on the more important and influential among them. But the masses of the Muslims were determined to snatch their right to freedom.
After the 1940, Resolution which spelled out in categorical and unequivocal terms the National objective of the Muslims, the League decided to follow a hard line policy. A meeting of All-India Muslims League Council was to be held in Bombay from July 27 to 29 august,1946.
A day earlier in Bombay’s Qaser Bagh Hall was held an open meeting of the Muslim League’s Council at about 9 P.M Malik Feroze Khan Noon was at the rostrum and he was spitting fire and venom against the British paradoxically with all the insignias and decoration which he had earned for his services to the British Government in India.
The audience of about 2200 drawn from all parts of India about 200 press reporters, men and women, representing the new’s media from all over the world, British, French, Chinese, included all those who represented the Muslim India, United now as never before were seated in two blocks before the dias on which were seated the Quaid-e-Azam and Nawab Zada Liaquat Ali Khan , with a mike each in front of them and another for the speakers of the occasion.
The atmosphere was charged with the wrath of an nation for Lord wave had let Nehru from a cabinet at the centre, thus bypassing the Muslims India. The Muslim India was declaring an all out war against Britain’s cooled blooded murder of the Muslim League.
The delegates from Hazara District of NWFP, which had then a population of Eight Lacs, Jalal Baba president of the Hazara District Muslim League Sardar Bahadur Khan, Abdur Rashid Kiyani were sitting about twenty rows behind Chaudhry Kallqu-uz- Zaman who was seated in the first row in front of the dais on the press side of the Hall. Jalal Baba excited by events and inspired by F.K. Noon’s fleeting suddenly took it in to his head that the league renounces their, titles bestowed upon them by the British. He dribbled the texts of a draft resolution in green ink on a sheet torn free his note book and showed it to his friends. One of them laughed at him audacity but neither disagrees with spirit of the resolution. He got up from his seat, walked past his friends and went up to the plate form. Near the Plate from Chaudhry Khalique-ur- zaman took it from him and passed it on to Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan the General secretary of All- India Muslim league.
Liaquat Ali Khan hastily translated it. It was then passed on to the president, the Quaid-e- Azam. The Quaid read it once and put it down. A minute later he read it the second time and laid it down again. A few minute latter when Mr. Noon had finished, came the big moment of the Jalal’s life. “call Jalal-ud-din” the Quaid said, Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan called the Jalal-ud-din to the mike and asked him to move his resolution. Thirteen Resolutions tabled earlier had been supper ceded. Jalal was hardly prepare refused to obey; he was almost trembling and breathless. But he got up and made his way to the rostrum.
Long after this incident he used to recall, “My heart missed a beat or tow. o, what a gathering I do not know what I said. Others told me later that I had spoken well, with feelings and to the points”. The resolution was moved.
After a brief sum up the Quaid announced that as the resolution was important, it would be presented to the working committee ,at its meeting the next morning for consideration. As the house reassembled next morning and the Quaid and his colleagues of the working committee emerged from the meeting rooms behind the dais, slightly behind scheduled, he announced that Jalal’s resolution had been adopted by the working committee. The whole house rose to its feet in a tumultuous applause, roaring and shouting. It took nearly twenty minutes for the noise and confusion to settle down to an audible “Quaid –e-Azam Zinda Abad”. The Quaid then called the house to order, remarking that it was the first time the house had got out of his control but that he had enjoyed it. It fell to Khalique –uz- Zaman to escort Jalal to the dais to let him renounce his title first. But Mr. Nazim-ud-din , and Liaquat told Jalal about it but Jalal would not move away from the mike. Soon after came the Quaid’s command; No Liaquat, let Jalal-ud-din renounce his title first”. Khawja sahib stepped back and history recorded that the simple Pathan from Hazara was the first in order of precedence in this act of renunciation. Second came another Pathan, Third khawja sahib the fourth a Bombay Knight and the fifth Malik Noon.
Sharif–ud-din Pirzada may quoted as saying, that it was the second of the session that khan Bahadur Jalal–ud-din suggested that the Muslim League should begin with renouncing their titles and persuading a more active to the Muslim Nation to renounce their titles from the British Government. This would be only the first step and the people should be prepared for further sacrifices. Pirzada went on to say that khan Bahadur Jalal–ud-din of NWFP, was the first to ascend the plate form and surrender his title.
The reporter of the Daily Star concluded with the remarks that;”I was standing on the main Road outside, wondering who this Jalal–ud-din was to have got this signal honour. Thus was fired the first shot off direct action sponsored by the Muslim League . A nearby peddler was singing a political parody of recent Film Number “Jab Tum Hi Chalay Pardes to Wavel Piyara Dunian May Kon Hamara”. Jubilation in Muslim India was un-precedent. My heart shouted Jalal Zinda Baad”.

Jala Baba A Victim of Congress Government

It was not any easy task to keeping burning the candle of the Pakistan Movement in the face of hostel wind blowing all around. During that period name of the Muslim League was synonymous with infidelity. The dominance of the Congress was so apparent that whosoever talked of the Muslim League was ridiculed and scoffed at, But well knitted organization of the Muslim League in Hazara had made it a bastion of Pakistan which naturally provoked the wrath of the congress Ministry in NWFP against Jalal Baba who was the main support for the Muslim League in the district.
The Late Dr. Khan Sahib, who was heading the cabinet as the Chief Minister of the Congress Ministry in NWFP in 1946, launched an offensive verification against Jalal Baba’s efforts to organize the Muslim League. Jalal Baba owned a double storey building comprising of four shops facing the road and two houses built at Nathiagali worth rupees twenty seven thousand and in 1946. Jalal Baba himself is reported to have victimized him. He was served with a notice to declare the cost of construction of his two houses. On his compliance, the Chief Minister issued orders to the concerned department to deposit a sum of rupees seven thousands only, in the treasury and direct Jalal Baba to draw the same as compensation for his property. This is how the Congress Ministry had deprived Jalal Baba of his valuable private property.
This was followed by another doze of vindictive victimization. Prior to the Congress Ministry Taking up office in NWFP Jalal Baba was a Transport Contractor in Hazara. And when the Congress Government came into office in Province he was still holding a contract to carry the Provincial Secretariat’s dak from Peshawar to Nathiagali and Vice-Versa, for which he was paid a few thousand per month. Soon after, the Congress came into Power in NWFP, Dr. Khan Sahib the Chief Minister ordered that the rates paid were too high, hence the contract was terminated. This contract, afterwards, was given to Ashraf Bus Services Peshawar. This action of the Government was ultra vires, for the contract was for a period of five years and it was the second year of its commencement, when it was cancelled. It is interesting to note that the provincial Chief Secretary had already awarded him first class commendatory certificate for his prompt services.
The third instance of such victimization came in 1947. In 1935 a fire had broken out in Abbottabad. Jalal Baba’s Transport Office, opposite the Cantt. Police Station had also been burnt to ashes. Iskandar Mirza (1934-36) the then Deputy Commissioner of Hazara was approached for the lease of a small piece of land from the Municipal Committee Abbottabad. All Congressites made it hell for Jalal Baba, and even Dr. Khan Sahib himself visited the site in early 1947 and ordered that the projecting shade in front of jalal-ud-Din Khan’s office, which had now become the Centre of Hazara Politics, be demolished by the Municipal Committee. The date for the demolition was fixed, on the evening Previous to the fixed date, Mr. Ghandhi announced the resignation of all the Congress Ministers in the country. Later on Jalal Baba paid the price of that piece of land.

Referendum in N.W.F.P.

Jalal-ud-Din Khan’s services during the Pakistan movement were too numerous to be recounted. He staked all his belongings for the achievement of Pakistan. After the Direct Action of 1946 the movement for Pakistan entered a crucial stage. In NWFP the Red Shirt Leaders were blowing their own trumpet. They raised the “Pukhtoonistan” Stunt, backed by Russia. Afghanistan and India. NWFP was the stronghold of the Congress and she had also came into Power hereafter the 1946’s provincial Elections. So it started creating trouble while defining the future of the Muslim of this Province. In order to decide whether NWFP should form part of the dominion of India or Pakistan a Referendum was held.
On June 18, 1947 the Quaid-i-Azam set up a Commission to see that the cause of the Muslim League was upheld successfully in the Referendum. He himself was the Chairman of the Commission. The other members of the Commission were I.I. Chundrigar, Raja Ghazanfer Ali, Syed Wajed Ali, Jalal-ud-Din Khan, Raja Hayder Zaman and Sardar Bahadur Khan. The Referendum lasted from July 6, to July 17, 1947. Jalal Baba worked from dawn to dusk for the Referendum, provided funds and, being a transporter and transport contractor, utilized his transport, for the purpose.
In NWFP total votes were 572,798 and _89,240 were polled in favour of Pakistan while _2874 went against it. From hazara 99% of the Muslim votes were cast in favour of Pakistan. Thirty percent of the total votes polled, were from Hazara. The credit for all this achievement goes to Jalal Baba’s efforts.
Jalal Baba was a member of the committee set up to make arrangements for Refrendum in Hazara. Raja Ghazanfar Ali was the Chief Supervisor. Jalal Baba’s keen interest, sheer devotion and provision of vehicles for use in the Referendum so impressed the head of the committee that the paid glowing tributes and recorded his appreciation for his services. Raja Sahib sent him a letter of appreciation from his office of Health Council Delhi Saying; “This is to express my sincere thanks and appreciation for your keen and energetic co-operation with me in connection with the Referendum work in the North West Frontier Province . I also greatly appreciate the services of the National Guards of your district.
On another occasion, while paying tributes to Jalal Baba’s services for Pakistan Movement, Inayat-ur-Rahman Khan Abbasi, the member Federal Council said that Jalal Baba was a prominent Muslim Leaguer and the “Winner of the Referendum”. He did not let the Congress Strike roots in the soil of Sarhad.
After the great triumph in the Referendum in July 1947, came the great day of August 14, 1947 which saw the emergence of “Pakistan” a new Sovereign Muslim State on the World Map. On August 15, 1947, Jalal Baba authored and circulated a pamphlet titled “AELAN-I-JASHAN-I-AZADI-E-PAKISTAN”.
In this pamphlet he appealed to all the Muslim League Committees, the masses and the public gathering to celebrate the Day of Independence with great favour and éclat. The poor should be entertained with food, sweets etc. he urged the masses.
Inayat-ur-Rahman Khan Abbassi, member of the Federal Council is quoted to have said:
“Khan Bahadur Jalal-ud-Din Khan was undoubtedly an organization in himself. Keeping in view his loyalty and services towards the country and the nation he deserved to be buried near Quaid-i-Azam’s Tomb. He was a veteran leader of the sub-continent in general and of NWFP in particular. It is not wrong to call him the Winner of the Referendum”.

Jalal Baba and the Kashmir Jehad

The greatest misfortune of the Kashmiris was that they were denied the right for a free plebiscite in 1947. The Kashmir Problem which has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan for the last 36 years, is now almost dead and there seems to be no chance of its revival. Pakistan took the issue to U.N.O. but India paid no heed to the world body’s decision.
Although the Muslims in Kashmir were in the majority but the Dogara Raj favored India and the latter grabbed it and declared it as an integral part of Baharat. But for Pakistan it was too difficult to forget the problem. India’s sinister designs to annex Kashmir, antagonized the masses in Pakistan, and a countrywide Jehad campaign started.
Pakistan was already confronted with dozens of problems and Kashmir problem was an addition to them. To cope with the situation and surmount the difficulties the Muslim League set up committees in different parts of the country. Jalal Baba was appointed as Honorary Assistant Custodian of the Evacuee Property in Hazara during 1948-49.
As he had also been president of the Anjuman-i-Muhajireen, Hazara District, since 1947, he played a vital role in Kashmir Jehad during the year 1948 and afterwards. He published several pamphlets for the masses to create political awakening and reactivate them. He sacrificed more than half of his transport in the Kashmir Jehad. Free transportation of ration and mobilization of the Mujahideen to the battle zone and supply of medical aid was his obligatory duty.
The Mujahideen from all over the country, on their way to the Battlefiedl used to come and stay with him for a little rest at Abbottabad. Then after collecting arms and ammunition, they would march forward to the front. He had also been the president of Kazaq Relief Committee, for which he received donations from all over the country. He served the cause through every possible support for the refugees and bore all their expenses.
Those who could not physically participate in the Jehad, extended help in the form of donations thus providing financial aid to the Mujahideen. A Military from Abbottabad and many other agencies and organizations donated consignments of food stuff and other necessary goods to the President of Hazara Muslim League for Kashmir Jehad and assured further assistance.
He had organized his activities so properly that he used to dispatch latters to the League workers, details of pay and other facilities, which were to be provided to the Mujahideen.
Letter addressed to the League workers containing directives from Jalal Baba clearly revealed the truth that a Soldier, hawaldar and Subaidar was being paid Rs. 50, 65 & 150 respectively. The Mujahideen were required to bring their own arms, whereas ammunition was being provided by the Government. In case of mujahid’s Martyrdom a grant of Rs.100 to his relatives and Rs. 100 for his funeral was made. It was the duty of the Government to bring back the body of the martyr.
Volunteers would come to Jalal Baba with written declarations on oath offering themselves for Jehad. He would send bands of such Muhahideen to the battlefront.
On Nov. 11, 1948 the Punjab Provincial Muslim League’s Kashmir Committee, sent a circular and a draft, resolution to Jalal Baba, the President of Hazara Muslim League, in connection with the celebration of “Yaum-i-Kashmir”. The committee urged him to pet this resolution moved in the Mosques of his district in the Jumma Prayer”.
On Nov. 18, 1949 Jalal Baba presided over huge public gathering at Abbottabad. They resolved that if the security council refrained from compliance with its August resolution to hold a free plebiscite in Kashmir the Muslim would adopt aggressive measure in to liberate Jammu and Kashmir from Dogra-Raj and Indian forces of occupation. The meeting further resolved, that any step other than a free and impartial plebiscite would compel small nations to withdraw from the U.n.O which might lead to a disastrous war engulfing not only Asiatic countries but Europe and America as well.
Jalal Baba had been proposed as the convener of the committee setup for Kashmir plebiscite, by the provincial Muslim League.
Jalal Baba had been carefully watching the new developments of the world affairs. He was also vigilant of the Nehru’s anti-Muslim and anti-Kashmir stance. In 1951, in the capacity of Vice-President of the Provincial Muslim League he issued a press statement that worldwide condemnation had exposed Nehru. He commented on Mr. Nehru’s statement that Bharat had been extending the hand of friendship while Pakistan raised its fist and cry for Jihad in a spirit of aggression. Is it was true, Jalal Baba said, why did Nehru not given a practical proof of friendship towards Pakistan by withdrawing the Bharti forces from the borders of Pakistan and by co-operating with the United Nations. He held the Kashmir issue as the root cause of all bitterness between the two countries. Worldwide condemnation of Mr. Nehru’s policies had exposed his vain efforts to mislead the world opinion he concluded.
He in the public gathering usually uttered the following slogan: “We will achieve Kashmir and Pakistan Zinda Bad”.3

Jalal Baba is Sacked

On April 29, 1951 Khan Qayum was elected president of provincial Muslim League. It had also been previously decided that whosoever be elected the president of Provincial Muslim League would be the Chief Minister of Frontier Province. So Khan Qayum won this coveted honor and as leader of the majority party to the Assembly. On December 16, 1951 when he took oath of the office of Chief Minister after Jaffar Shah…………………………/…….././././././././././././././/……………….. his cabinet.
The Editor “Jamhoor” revealed that although Jalal Baba’s group was not a very large one in that Assembly, yet being the most influential leader of his district, and in view his services, Khan Qayum included him in his cabinet. Jalal Baba was given the port-folios of local self-Government and Rehabilitation Departments.5
Though his tenure as a minister was short lived and lasted only for about two years, yet it proved extremely ruinous for Jalal Baba. He suffered an irreparable loss at the hands of his selfish and opportunist friends who were jealous of the Baba’s growing influence and reputation. Although Khan Qayum’s victory in the presidential elections of Provincial Muslim League in 1951, was with the support of Jalal Baba, yet it also in a way sealed his fate. Prior to this election, Khan Qayum had once remarked about the Baba that: “I am not afraid of kings but of the king maker”.
Faiz Mohammad Khan a member of Municipal Committee Abbottabad in an interview disclosed that a psychologist Colleague of Jalal Baba Conspired against him and told Khan Qayum that the former was planning to sabotage the latter’s Ministry in the Province. 1
Now Khan Qayum saw in Jalal Baba, a potential danger to his own leadership, because Jalal Baba could influence the views of Liaquat Ali Khan when the latter was dead set against Qayum Khan in April 1951, when the election for the Presidentship of the Provincial Muslim League were about to take place. Qayum Khan thought that Jalal Baba would not let him run the government of the Province peacefully. A secret intrigue was started against Jalal Baba, of which, however, he was not unaware and did mention it in his confidentially.
When Jalal Baba took over as member of the Provincial cabinet, Khan Qayum asked him to resign the Presidentship of the Anjuman-i-Islamian, which he had hold for about sixteen years and which was most important to the Baba for his public contacts. Khan Qayum justified himself, by arguing that Auqaf authorities would manage the mosque and Islamia High School, and his worries would be over.

Facts and Fallacies

Perhaps Jalal Baba was the only Minister in Khan Qayum’s Cabinet, whose activities were targeted by both the Governor and the Chief Minister, as he was an outspoken, daring and most popular figure in the cabinet. In early fifties a countrywide agitation had started against the “Ahmadies”. Thus Ulema and other religious cum political leaders made wild speeches against them. Jalal Baba in the capacity of the Provincial Minister and the President of the District Muslim League, also expressed his views in a gathering arranged by the Ahraris at Abbottabad in June 1952. Khan Qayum the Chief Minister, sent a letter along with secret diaries to the Baba, pertaining to the speeches alleged to have been made by the latter. Khan Qayum is reported to have said that:
“You are now holding a very responsible position and as such you are not expected to criticize the policy of the Prime Minister of Pakistan or the appointment of Ch. Zafarullah Khan as foreign Minister of the country”. He further advised him to act with great restraint and caution while making public utterances.
Jalal Baba was quiet astonished on seeing the secret diaries and reports of the C.I.D. which contained exaggerated and false accounts of his speeches. On all accounts, he assured the Chief Minister, that it was a very distorted version of his speech on “Idul Fitr” and that he was fully aware of his responsibility as Minister of the Government. The reference in the reported speech to the Prime Minister showed complete lack of understanding of the whole tenor of his speech.
The then Governor Shahab ud Din in a letter to Khan Qayum also expressed his concern about the situation, and the activities of Jalal Baba.
He has quoted as:
“I feel it my duty to give you, as the Chief Executive of the Province, a warning, coming from a sincere friend of yours, that if activities of the kind are allowed to go on and men like Jalal ud Din Khan are allowed to behave in the manner he has already behaved, then you are asking for trouble in the Province. I earnestly hope that you will realize the danger and take action in time and not allow the matter to deteriorate further.”
This letter of Governor to the Chief Minister NWFP came after the former had received an account from the provincial Amir Jamata-i-Ahmadaya, which contained perverted and distorted report of the speech of Jalal Baba against the “Ahmadis”. Again in August 1952, through a special messenger Khan Qayum sent a letter strictly prohibiting Jalal Baba from taking part or presiding over the meetings convened by the “Ahraris” at Shankiari. The secret diary of intelligence department revealed that Hazara was in the firm grip of anti-Ahmadies Propoganda. It was nothing but religious fervor and zeal which compelled Jalal Baba to speak against the Ahmadies on behalf of the Muslims of his district.
The Anjuman-Ahmadis Karachi has managed to hold a gathering at Jahangir Park in May 1952. It had also invited Zafar Ullah Khan the then Foreign Minister. Prime Minister Nazim-ud-Din resented the new and ordered the former not to attend this Sectarian Meeting. But the latter responded that he had promised, and would attended, and if the Prime Minister insisted, he would rather resign. Finally he did participated, delivered a speech and tried to prove Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as a “Majadded”.
Keeping in view the step taken by the Foreign Minister. Jalal Baba was justified in his activities but the Anjuman-e-Ahmaias appeale to both the Governor and the Chief Minister of NWFP had influenced their minds. They had tried their level best to restrain Jalal Baba from anti-Ahmadias activities, but in vain. Now they were left with no alternative but to resort to the mean tactics of using the C.I.D. against Jalal Baba, which, they fully exploited against him. Jalal Baba in the capacity of a Minister NWFP, addressed a huge gathering in “Eid Gah” at Abbottabad on June, 12th, 1953 Pakistan, he said, was demanded and attained on the basis of religion. Therefore, he wished to convey the general feelings of the public to the Central Government that all the Ulema arrested in connection with the Khat-i-Nabowat agitation be released and also the detenus who were loyal to the Pakistan Government should be set free. He said that there was a rumour that Kashmir was going to be partitioned. This he remarked would amount to belying all the statements and comments so far made in this behalf and going back on the promises made to the public.(1)
The distorted version of the above cited speech reported by the CID in its fortnightly diary, alleged that in Abbottabad Jalal Baba Minister for Local Self Government, and unfortunately expressed his dissatisfaction over the present negotiation the Government of the Pakistan was conducting with India for a settlement of the Kashmir Dispute. He expressed the hope that a person like himself, who had actually participated in Jehad for Kashmir, would be consulted. In his capacity as Vice–President of the Provincial Muslim League, he pleaded strongly for the release of Dr. Khan Sahib and other political detenus.
Jalal Baba was deeply grieved when he happened to see the copy of this fortnightly report issued by the Chief Secretary, Government NWFP. The explanation he furnished is quoted as under:

“To tell you the truth it is nothing less than a bolt from the blue. A much perverted account of my speech has been given there in, which I highly present and take acceptation to. It is a bundle of lies I will say.” /93

These extracts of the Fortnightly Report Jalal Baba could find no where in the Daily Diary and finally when he failed to find the Daily Diary itself, he reach the conclusion that “I may be wrong, but my impression is that there is some secret agency working against me which is bent upon giving a bad name to me and possibly harm me and also to create misunderstanding against me in the mind of the Prime Minister and bring me disrepute. I cannot be such a fool as to deliver such a irresponsible-speech. I challenge the truth of the report and request that an inquiry be held forthwith to find out the facts”.
The situation further deteriorated and the differences went on increasing, when Jalal Baba could not freely exercise his powers as Minister for Local Self Government and Refugees Rehabilitation. As a matter of fact the Secretary, who had full support of the Governor and the Chief Minister NWFP, was all in all. There were instances when the Minister Jalal Baba passed some allotment orders in favour of some refugees, the Secretary either issued stay orders or the allottees were asked to vacate the premises allotted to them. In Mardan a refugees were ejected to make room for a local headmaster. Similarly another family of Bahawalpur state was allotted a Bungalow at Peshawar but they were asked by the Secretary Refugees and Rehabilitation Department to vacate.
When the case was brought to the notice of the Chief Minister, he paid no attention to it and asked the Secretary Refugee and Rehabilitation Department, to leave the issue as such. This discriminatory behavior of the Chief Minister annoyed Jalal-ud-Din Khan and he then wrote to the Chief Minister which is quoted as “I do not know under which rule a refugee was made to vacate the house for a local. My order was passed prior to the order-in-Council and it was binding. This in fact clearly means the Law of Jungle. It means just taking possession of some one’s property and then telling him to go to the law court.”
Although this short period of office in the Government bring little repute to Jalal Baba for his honest, melflenn and sincere services yet he get badly trapped in the nefarious designs of his opponents, who wanted to cripple him politically, and he did suffer a set back at their hands.
In the year 1953, Faiz Muhammad Khan of Kalabat, Haripur and Khuda Dad Khan of Bhagur Mang, Abbottabad, organized an opposition group in the Hazara Muslim League and got stay order from the Senior Civil Judge of Hazara, against Jalal Baba. The President of Hazara muslim League, with this started the down fall of Jalal Baba.
The final tragic episode of the drama started when an election petition was filed against Jalal Baba. A Senior Journalist of Haza, Ghulam Jan Khan narrates the story how Jaslal Baba was sacked. He is quoted as saying: The petition against the Baba was filed during the summer of 1953. His official Headquarter in Abbottabad was housed in the Town Hall. The Election petition against him was admitted. He was working in his Town Hall Office when he received order of his removal from his Cabinet Post and disqualification for five years. Some are made to suffer, not because they did what they thought was right. His case falls under this category.
Shortly after Jalal Baba’s removal from the office of the Provincial Minister the common people expressed their resentment over the incident many of the leading newspapers of the country wrote long and comprehensive editorials on the issue. The Daily Star Peshawar wrote “Minister have been Sacked before in this county, whole Ministry has been dismissed, even the omnipotent Central Minister was not an exception. Even the charges leveled against Mohammad Jalal-ud-Din Khan the sacked Minister of NWFP, are not different from those brought against Hamid-ul-Haq of East Bangal to Qazi Fazal Ullah of Sind what is characteristic of the decision taken the other day at Abbottabad is that a Minister was PRODAED without the invocation of the provision of the famous public Representation office disqualification act.
The Daily further commented that probably the Governor did not want to take on himself the burden of the preparation of the charge sheet or the punishment, provide3d in the Act did not suit the nature of the case. The Minister who was sacked did not lack grace of tendering his resignation and welcoming the inquiry against him.
The news of Jalal Baba’s dismissal spread throughout Hazara like wild fire. People reacted against it. Bazars were closed and masses throughout Haza brought out processions against this arbitrary decision. Since on April 22, 1953 Khan Qayum had been taken in the Central Cabinet and now Sardar Abdur Rashid Khan, The I.G. Police, NWFP was appointed as the Chief Minister of the Frontier Province. The Provincial Government’s estimates of Jalal Baba’s popularity proved totally wrong when it viewed public resentment in the form of such violent protest. To cope with the situation the Provincial Government arranged a visit of Government Officials and some of the Muslim Leagues all over Hazara. They were required to survey the situation and make it clear to the people that the decision was a matter of principle and not an outcome of personal whims.
At Mansehra arrangements for a public meeting were made but people decided not to participate in it. They behaved in the same way throughout Hazara. Here after the officials cut short their visit. As there was a great indignation among the masses, they paid no head to the so called justifications of the Government’s action as explained by the officials. Their only demand was that the PRODA against Jalal Baba be declared void.
The charges leveled against Jalal Baba were corruption. Favoritism, and nepotism.While commenting on the nature of the charges and their compatibility with Jalal Baba’s life. The Daily Shahbaz wrote along Editorial on June 23, 1954, entitled “Lift Resytrictions from Khan Jalal-ud-Din Khan – A request to Prime Minister and Governor General of Pakistan”. In the General Election it said, after independence Jalal Baba was elected to the constituent assembly from where he was picked up as the Minister for local Bodies and Rehabilitation. As a minister he worked with such zeal and kept such a close contact with the people that he become more popular than all the other Ministers of the Province. His popularity put some vested interests against him and they were bent upon undoing his political career. They filed an election petition against him, as a result of which his membership of the Assembly was cancelled. And he was debarred from taking part in the election for five years. “We do not criticize the court and Governor Sarhad as is proper we respect their decision and accept it as just but request the Governor General of Pakistan Mr. Ghulam Mohammad, through the Prime Minister of Pakistan Mr. Mohammad Ali to revoke the restriction placed on Jalal Baba”.
He had raised the flag of the Muslim League in Sarhad againtr mounting odds. He sacrificed everything at the time of the Referendum. He returned the title at the advice of the Quaid-e-Aazam. On accepting the Ministry he neglected his business of lacs. All his property was mortgaged simply because of neglect. He faces serious financial troubles. After the expulsion from the Assembly, and the Ministry he was approached by the Awami League. He could indulge in dangerous negative politics but he did not choose that course and is still devoted Muslim League worker. He is still as popular as ever”. The paper further dared to ask two questions:
1. Had Jalal-ud-Khan been involved in nepotism and bribery, would he be as poor as he is?
2. If he mislead the masses and had done ragging in the election, would the people still regard him as their hero as they do today?
If there is another election he would still win it.
Finally it was second half of the year 1954 when Jaqla Baba was freed from all the shakles of PRODA.

Jalal Baba in the Fold of the Republican Party

When cleared of the PRODA in 1954, Jalal Baba contested for the membership of Pakistan constituent Assembly and came out victorious against Khan Qayum. The PRODA had left some damaging effects on the political career of the Baba. But in January, 1958 when he joined the Government of the Republican Party, it was yet another setback for him. His political rivals were somewhat happy but he had annoyed Muslim Leaguers by accepting the Government Office. On the first day when he took over as a Minister of state for Interior in Karachi, the Capital, he offered thanks giving prayer in his office.
He took keen interest in matters of national and regional importance. He availed himself of every opportunity to make his presence felt. His voice was heard not only in the corridors of the Assembly but outside too. His love and sympathy for the tanants and working classes could be easily assessed by the fact that soon after the assumption of his charge he put the issue of Hazara tenants before Feroze Khan Noon, the then Prime Minister of Pakistan. The Nawab of Amb, Upper Hazara, had made an attempt to eject about forty to sixty thousand tenants. The then Prime Minister when informed of the situation referred the issue to the Chief Minister West Pakistan, Sardar Abdur Rashid Khan. The Prime Minister ordered a probe into the matter for quick disposal of the case. Jalal Baba exerted tremendous pressure for safe guarding the rights of the Peasants who were being rendered homeless and land-less.
Jalal Baba also put the issue before the Revenue Minister of West Pakistan. Mr. Iftikhar Khan, Pakistan, at that time was one country comprising of two provinces, the East and West Pakistan. Stressing for the immediate redressal of their grievances, the Baba drew attention of the Minister to the ejectment of sixty thousand Peasants of Upper Tanawal Hazara District, who had gone on strike at Darband for twelve days. He regarded the Peasants as real proprietors of their lands for over a hundred years and advocated grant of legal proprietary rights on these lands.
Jalal Baba while raising his voice for the peasants went on to criticize the policy of double standards followed by the Government. The Prime Minister, he said, on Feb. 16, 1958 had declared in Lahore that two Crore acres of land would be distributed among the peasants under the “Grow More” scheme. But the expulsion of the peasants in the West Pakistan was contrary to the Government’s declared policy. He claimed that the contradiction in words and deed was unethical and should be avoided. He was optimistic that the Government of West Pakistan would reconsider the decision of ejectment of peasants, and would extend maximum facilities to them by taking measures for their uplift.
Jalal Baba himself a common man, never refused other common people to approach him. He was very sincere at heart and was ever ready to lend his ears to the people’s grievances. After his stepping into the office, he appealed to the public for co-operation in restoring law and order in the country and bringing peace of mind to the harassed and down troddens citizens.
He had placed himself at the disposal of the public all the time. He openly allowed everybody having any problem to approach him without any let or hindrance. He assured them that everybody would find him ever ready to have justice done to them. He in a press statement further emphasized that he had accepted office as the Minister of the Interior at a time when Law an order situation had deteriorated in the country in general and almost broken down in Karachi, the Federal Capital. This called for an all out efforts and mobilization of all possible resources to restore normally. The problem, he said, was of such a magnitude that both the forces of the Government and the people would be harnessed for a concerted drive against the forces of disruption and crime.
To tackle the situation the Baba as an Interior Minister took necessary steps in this regard. In May, 1958 he announced that for the eradication of crimes, Mohallah Committees were being set up to assist the law enforcing agencies. In a press conference he appealed to the Journalists to help in the drive against the crime wave. He also declared that he wished to launch a decisive campaign against kidnapping, pick pocketing, thefts, murder, decoity and smuggling. And in this regard he solicited people’s co-operation and asked them to remain vigilant of their obligation.
He was keen to end corruption from the National life. He called upon the police to take strong and deterrent measures, backed by competent machinery to enforce them, against all corrupt practices. While expressing his anxiety over the malpractices, Jalal Baba said the menace of corruption had gained formidable proportion in our country. He made fervent appeal to all sections of society to check the evil, “Unless it is checked forthwith, this practice is bound to spread like cancer in the administration which no amount of remedial measure would be able to heel later.
He stressed the need for the honest and sincere working of Law enforcing agencies entrusted with the task of crime eradication. He enjoined upon all cadres of the police to work with absolute honesty, justice and impartiality and not to hesitate in catching the influential people whose activities were inimical to the state. Because such people are in a position to as much harm to the country than the humble ones.
The Baba always kept himself well informed of the conditions prevailing beyond the geographical boundaries of the country. He was obviously aware of the fact that the events in the international politics have rapid and lasting repercussions on the domestic politics of Pakistan. Being an Interior Minister he gave much time to the domestic affairs, but he kept a wathful eye over the world affairs in general. His views of the world situation were in consonance with other great Muslim Leaders. He had the same sympathetic heart for the depressed and destitute which bled for the sufferings of their peoples.
The Baba on various occasions spoke for the Muslim Cause in Palestine and Kashmir. He often mentioned in his public speeches the deplorable conditions of the Muslims in the world. He was a far sighted man and was against Pakistan’s blind conformity with western ideas and policies. He expressed his desire to strengthen relation with the Soviet Russia and not to sit in America’s lap. All he wished was to secure all benefits and advantages for the country and it was more advantageous for Pakistan not to antagonize Russia.
Jalal Baba admired Jamal Abdul Nasir of Egypt as a leader of the Muslim world. He also had a meeting with him. Whenever Baba had the occasion of meeting foreign dignitaries who under took visits to Pakistan and he availed himself of the opportunity to exchange views with them on matters of mutual interest. Jalal Baba knew well the plight of the Muslim countries and was of the opinion that the cause of their suffering was disunity among their ranks and files. He was firmly of the opinion that a United Muslim Blocan preserve and safeguard their rights which were in jeopardy in the tussle between the communists and the capitalists. He held that the Muslim world had its own distinct entity. Therefore, blind following of any of the Power Blocks would be detrimental to their freedom and integrity.
When Sheikh Abdullah was arrested in India, the Baba took stern notice of it and condemned the act. H warned pundit Nehru that righteousness could not be suppressed by such methods and the people of Kashmir were bound ultimately to triumph in their struggle for freedom. Addressing a press conference at Karachi he said, “by arresting Sheikh Abdullah, the Indian Government has given proof of their narrow mindedness”. Do they think that by doing so they will suppress the voice of Forty Lac oppressed people of Kashmir”.
Jalal Baba said that arrest of Sheikh Abdullah was also a proof of the fact that the population of Kashmir wanted to join Pakistan and not India. He stressed that Kashmir should be handed over to its rightful custodians.
His tenure of office as Home Minister came to an end in October, 1958 when Ayub Khan imposed Martial Law in the country and thus banned all political activities. Never again did he hold any Government office after 1958 till his death in 1981.

The Last Phase of A Glorious Career

Although the restrictions imposed upon Jalal Baba were lifted in 1954, he suffered grave consequences in the last couple of decades of his life. His transport business had been almost liquidated by his total involvement in the Pakistan movement. He had spent all his property and assets for the sake of the Muslim League. He was left with only a few buses which too he donated for the Kashmir Jehad. Despite the fact that he was a Provincial Minister in 1951, and later on a Federal Minister in 1958, his political and financial status went down deteriorating and he staggered from crises to crises.
In October 1958, when Martial Law was imposed, all political activities were banned. Thus the Ayub era jeopardized the future of politicians and that of the democracy. In 1967 when political activities were restored Jalal Baba again came out with some press statements. Her had kept a vigilant eye, on the internal affairs of the country during the Martial Law regime. In a press statement Jalal Baba appealed to all the politicians, who had been absolved at EBDO, to join the Convention Muslim League. He paid his tribute to the politicians for keeping themselves quiet during the Martial Law. By doing so, he said, they had served the Nation a lot. And now, keeping in view the larger interests of the country, he urged upon the politicians to join hands with Ayub Khan and not to side with the oppositions as it was ineffective.
Perhaps, Jalal Baba either lacked far sight and breadth of vision, or it was because of his righteousness of mind and honesty of purpose that he could not differentiate between friends and foes. While advocating the part of politicians, Jalal Baba pleaded that Ayub Khan should consider all the EBDO ridden politicians as his right hand men. Forgetting the bitter memories of the past, Jalal Baba reminded Khan Qayum about the fickle mindedness of his friends who had arranged a 32 miles long procession for him but forsook him the next day.
Dr. Fazal-ur-Rehman was head of the Islamic Research Institute during the Ayub’s regime. He created ambiguity and misconception about Islam and regarded the “Miraj” event a mere fiction. This hurt the public feelings as an outrage of the religious susceptibilities of the Muslims. Jalal Baba while addressing a huge gathering at Abbottabad strongly condemned Fazal-ur- Rehman’s un-Islamic views and demanded his immediate dismissal through a resolution, adopted in this gathering. He also appealed to the heads of Arab States to coin and confer on Ayub Khan the title of the Quaid-i-Asia for his services to the Muslims of this continent. This was the period when Jalal Baba had suspended his active involvement in politics and was only content with issuing periodic press statements etc.
In 1969, as a result of a countrywide agitation. Ayub Khan was overthrown and Yahya Khan came to power. He decided to hold General Elections in the country. In the last decade of his life, Jalal Baba had lost almost all his former fame and popularity, yet he still decided to take part in the elections of 1970. He contested the Abbottabad Rural constituency seat against Iqbal Khan Jadoon, and was defeated. This failure was a final blow to his political career and he decided to retire from practical politics. Last few years of his life were spent in misery and disease. Asthma and heart trouble darkened the last days of his brilliant career.
Noor-ul-Hassan the reporter of Daily Nawa-i-Waqt, Rawalpindi, when saw Jalal Baba in this pitiable condition he wrote an editorial. He is quoted as saying: “The World viewed that many people after gaining power, erected big buildings and accumulated wealth and property, but Jalal Baba gained nothing. Instead he lost all his wealth he had earned before his ministry. People say that he used to remain calm and quiet, kept his eyes focused on horizon. His memory had been impaired and poverty had shaken him”.
The Editor “The Jamhoor” weekly highlights the political career of Jalal Baba and narrates the story of his last days. He says:-
“Like preceding years the “Independence day” on August 14, 1979 was celebrated with full enthusiasm and zeal. But it was a bit different from the preceding one. This time the services of the freedom fighters were projected on the radio and the television. Those who were dead, were paid rich tributes and those still living, were brought to the stage and extolled”.
The National Centre Abbottabad also organized such a program. On this August occasion Jalal-ud-Din Khan, the veteran politician of Hazar and national freedom fighter was the Chief Guest. Aziz-ul-Hassan, the then Commissioner Hazar Division, was in the Chair. Jalal Baba, now retired from active politics had been, in the heydays of his political career, the force and the moving spirit behind the Muslim League in the Hazara district. But now reduced to only a I shadow of his former self. His appearance on the stage brought tears into the eyes of the audience who had known him.
It was a pathetic sight so see him come tottering on to the stage. He was too weak to walk by himself and hence had to be supported by three or four men to clinch the dais. The events of his past life and achievements flashed across my mind’s eye. The occasion was the Anniversary of the Birth of Pakistan on the 14th of August and the scene was the Town Hall, in the beautiful Jinnah Garden with its tall Chinar trees under the shadow of green Sarban hill, which once used to resound with Slogans of Quaid-e-Azam Zinda Bad and Pakistan Zinda Bad, raised by this stalwart of the Pakistan movement. When he himself used to preside the Muslim League meetings and speak for hours together. But now old age had crippled him to such an extent that he could hardly utter a few words. In this emotion-ladden voice he said that it was only his love for the Quaid and his devotion to Pakistan and the Muslim League that had brought him out of his retirement to the Present meeting.”
His political decline speed his financial collapse which had multiplied manifold General Zia-ul-Haq realizing his political services and financial difficulties, announced the award of rupees two thousands per month for the Baba Just sixteen month before his death. After passing through these hardships his soul departed on Jan 2, 1981. (May his soul rest in peace). Ghulam Khan Jan, Editor, Jamhoor, was once asked for comments on the personality of Jalal Baba. He came out with the remarks:
“As one of his close friends I consider him an historical figure, born in a poor family. He earned the title and wealth by sheer dint of his ability. He fought and defeated all Khans and Landlords. Tenants and peasants supported him. He proved that sincere leadership finds its recognition. He was surely a classical example of a self-made man”.
Jalal Baba’s sad demise stirred the people of all walks of life and the social, political and cultural circles expressed their deep grief and regarded this death as the end of an unprecedented era. Rich tributes were paid to his gigantic personality. Emminent personalities appreciated Baba’s relentless efforts for glorifying the Muslim cause and setting the example of sacrifice patience dedication and devotion.
The leaders who had worked with him in the Pakistan Movement deeply mourned his death. These included Mr. Yousaf Khattak, Fida Mohammad Khan Late Arbab Sikander Khan Khalil, Sabir Ilahi Shakir, Mian Mohammad Iqbal, Akhwan Zada Behrwar Saeed and many other Raja Sikandar Zaman paid rich tributes to the Baba, and in his condolence message he declared that the Hazar Muslim League was personified in Jalal Baba as the Quaid-i-Azam had personified the All India Muslim League. He added that baba’s sacrifices for the establishment of Pakistan were unforgettable and would continue to inspire the future generation for a long time to come.
General Zia expressed his sentiments of grief the demise of Jalal Baba. In a condolence message sent to his on General Zia eulogized Baba’s role in the Pakistan Movement. He said that the Baba had also devoted all his energies for the progress and prosperity of the country and the whole record of his life bore testimony to this fact.
Governor Fazal Haq of NWFP was also grieved at the incident. He expressed his shock in his condolence message. Paying tributes to the Baba he maintained that the Baba was a popular leader and a devoted soldier of Quaid-i-Azam. His selfless efforts and bold and courageous struggle brought him high and honourable position. The Baba was a freedom fighter imbued with the spirit of public service and will be remembered as an established leader for ever. His death is a national loss.

Conclusion

The heart throb of the people of Hazara, the stalwart of The Pakistan Movement, the soul of the Hazara Muslim League and the “Winner” of the Referendum in NWFP was Jalal Baba, a common man’s man.
He was outspoken, simple honest and industrious. His achievements are numerous to be recounted and his personal traits are praiseworthy. But what made him sink in the abyss of obscurity during the last decade of the life, and thereafter,. His demise. This is a puzzling question the reply to which has to be sought.
He championed the cause of the poor masses and the peasant of Hazara for which he faced enmity of Khan’s and Nawab’s of Hazara.
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